in the south of Italy, with Etruscans and Celts inhabiting the centre and the north. Science and technology Main article: Science and technology in Italy Clockwise from top: Alessandro Volta, inventor of the electric battery and discoverer of methane ; 210 Galileo Galilei, recognised as the Father of modern science, physics and observational astronomy; 211 Guglielmo Marconi, inventor of the. The latter one is the only active volcano in mainland Europe and is most famous for the destruction of Pompeii and Herculanum in the eruption in. From 2008 to 2013, the country suffered 42 months of GDP recession. 43 Between the 17th and the 11th centuries BC Mycenaean Greeks established contacts with Italy and in the 8th and 7th centuries BC a number of Greek colonies were established all along the coast of Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula, that. Hypotheses for the etymology of the name "Italia" are numerous. Italy is known for its considerable architectural achievements, 299 such as the construction of arches, domes and similar structures during ancient Rome, the founding of the Renaissance architectural movement in the late-14th to 16th centuries, and being the homeland of Palladianism, a style of construction. Early Modern Main articles: Italian Renaissance, Italian Wars, and History of Italy (15591814) In the 14th and 15th centuries, northern-central Italy was divided into a number of warring city-states, the rest of the peninsula being occupied by the larger Papal States and the Kingdom. At the court of Emperor Frederick II, who ruled the Sicilian kingdom during the first half of the 13th century, lyrics modelled on Provençal forms and themes were written in a refined version of the local vernacular. 344 Italian skiers achieved good results in Winter Olympic Games, Alpine Ski World Cup, and World Championship.